Egypt: Worst Governance in the Emerging Markets

Updated: November 2022.


Key Insights
  • Egypts’s economic and demographic data are unreliable, graded C on the World Economics classification scale. The data presented here have been re-estimated and improved where possible, using Purchasing Power Parity data to make international comparisons, by the addition of best estimates for the large Informal economy in Egypts, and by estimates to correct for the use by Egypts’s outdated System of National Accounts framework (SNA). We believe they represent a more realistic view of the Egyption economy, but counsel users that this cannot be guaranteed in a country with significant Governance and corruption problems.
  • The Egyptian economy is estimated by World Economics to be 47% larger than official data suggests, and the second biggest economy in Africa.
  • Egypts large population benefits from high levels of GDP pe Capita in relation to the rest of Africa but only around half those of other Emerging Market countries.
  • Egypt suffers from poor levels of governance, the lowest ranking country in the Emerging Markets
  • Climate change is affecting Egypt more than most countries with temperatures increasing faster than the global average.
 
ECONOMY SIZE

  • When measured in Purchasing Power Parity terms, including estimates for its large informal economy, and adjustments for outdated base year measures, Egypt's GDP is currently the nineteenth largest in the world, second largest in Africa and ninth largest in the Emerging Markets
Gross Domestic Product: 2021
Ranked by GDP
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GDP PPP
(Billions)
GDP Data Quality
Grade
Share of
Global GDP
%





Mexico $3,252 B 2.0%
Italy $3,064 A 1.9%
Korea, Rep. $2,801 A 1.7%
Saudi Arabia $2,220 B 1.3%
Spain $2,188 A 1.3%
Canada $2,037 A 1.2%
Nigeria $1,934 D 1.2%
Egypt $1,855 C 1.1%
Thailand $1,792 C 1.1%
Taiwan $1,700 C 1.0%
Poland $1,588 A 1.0%
Pakistan $1,523 B 0.9%
Australia $1,440 A 0.9%
Argentina $1,371 C 0.8%
Philippines $1,276 B 0.8%

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GDP Data Quality

Data Quality Ratings: Africa
Index: 0 = Extremely poor quality, 100 = Good as it gets
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Data
Quality
Index
Data
Quality
Grade
Base
Year
SNA
Version
Informal
Economy %
Resoucres
Index
0-100
Corruption
Index
0-100





Senegal 69.9 C 2014 2008 37.7 66.7 43
Lesotho 69.4 C 2012 2008 30.9 67.8 38
Tunisia 68.2 C Chained 1993 30.4 58.9 44
Comoros 68.1 C Chained 2008 36.6 46.7 20
Malawi 67.6 C 2010 2008 30.6 70.0 35
Mozambique 66.7 C 2014 2008 34.3 62.2 26
Uganda 65.1 C 2010 2008 34.4 71.1 27
Egypt 64.4 C 2016 1993 34.8 82.2 33
Kenya 63.0 C 2009 2008 32.6 57.8 30
Benin 62.7 C Chained 1993 48.8 62.2 42
Zambia 61.8 C 2010 2008 38.7 53.3 33
Cote d'Ivoire 60.5 C 2015 1993 40.4 71.1 36
Namibia 60.2 C 2010 1993 24.7 51.1 49
Tanzania 59.7 C 2007 2008 46.7 63.3 39
Ethiopia 59.2 D 2015 1993 33.5 47.8 39

Access the interactive all country Data Quality Ratings table

Key:
Data Quality Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Poor, 100 = Excellent.

Resources Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Low level of resources, 100 = High level of resources.

Corruption Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = High corruption, 100 = Low corruption.

Grade definitions:
         A: As good as it gets;
         B: Use with caution;
         C: Unreliable for many purposes
         D: Extremely poor quality.


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ECONOMIC GROWTH

  • Egypt's Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) over the last 10, 5 and 3 years was 3.8%, 4.4% and 4.1% respectively.
  • On a 10-year CAGR basis Egypt ranks as the 19th fastest growing economy in the Africa region and 6th of 24 countries in the Emerging Markets over the past decade.
Egypt's Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) over the last 10-years
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Global
Rank:
GDP Data
Quality:
Grade
CAGR
10 Year:
2011-2021
CAGR
5 Year:
2016-2021
CAGR
3 Year:
2018-2021
Global Growth
Share:
Percentage




Indonesia 36 B 4.3% 3.3% 2.2% 3.6%
Mozambique 37 C 4.2% 2.1% 1.1% 0.0%
Pakistan 38 B 4.0% 3.4% 1.9% 1.1%
Papua New Guinea 39 D 3.9% 1.2% 0.9% 0.0%
Oman 40 B 3.9% 2.6% 3.6% 0.2%
Panama 41 C 3.9% 1.3% -0.9% 0.1%
Malaysia 42 B 3.8% 2.4% 0.6% 0.9%
Egypt 43 C 3.8% 4.4% 4.1% 1.3%
Georgia 44 B 3.8% 3.5% 2.6% 0.1%
Costa Rica 45 A 3.7% 3.7% 3.9% 0.1%
Myanmar 46 D 3.7% 0.3% -3.3% 0.3%
Mali 47 D 3.7% 3.3% 2.2% 0.1%
Sri Lanka 48 C 3.6% 1.8% 0.7% 0.3%
Moldova 49 B 3.6% 3.7% 3.2% 0.0%
Gambia 50 D 3.6% 4.7% 4.0% 0.0%

Access the interactive all country CAGR table

  • Over the past 10 years the global economy has grown by 27%. Egypt's contribution to this growth was 1.3% once any allowances are made for base year and informal economy size.

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WEALTH

  • GDP per Capita has grown at a slower rate than comparable countries in the North African region but faster than countries in the Emerging Markets generally.
  • In GDP per Capita terms, Egypt ranks 6th for Africa and 21st for the Emerging Markets.
Egypt's GDP Per Capita Growth: 25 Years
Index: 1996 = 100

GDP Per Capita: Africa
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GDP Per Capita
PPP
(Int$)
GDP per Capita
Data Quality
Grade





Libya $50,258 D
Gabon $28,174 D
Botswana $26,324 D
Mauritius $24,193 A
South Africa $18,794 B
Egypt $17,795 C
Eswatini $14,147 D
Tunisia $13,662 C
Namibia $13,194 C
Algeria $12,883 B
Angola $11,034 D
Morocco $9,904 B
Nigeria $9,148 D
Africa Average $8,571 -
Emerging Markets Average $38,310 -

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INEQUALITY

  • The distribution of income in an economy and can be measured on a country by country basis by the Gini Coefficient. Gini values are not all up-to-date but in the case of Egypt the data relates to 2017.
  • World Economics has Indexed the Gini Coefficient in relation to each country for comparison purposes. The Index is on a scale of 0-100. A high value indicates a more egalitarian society - and a low value suggests a lot of the national income is in the hands of a relatively small section of the population.
  • Egypt ranks 32nd globally, 3rd for the Africa region and 6th in the Emerging Markets for Inequality.
Inequality Rankings: Africa
Index: 0-100, 0 = High Inequality; 100 = High Equality
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Regional
Rank
Inequality
Index
Poverty
% of Population




Algeria 1 56.2 0.5%
Libya 2 51.3 -
Egypt 3 50.0 3.2%
Mauritania 4 48.3 6.0%
Tunisia 5 47.9 0.2%
Mali 6 47.6 49.7%
Guinea 7 46.5 35.3%
Sudan 8 45.7 12.7%
Niger 9 45.6 44.5%
Ethiopia 10 44.4 30.8%

Access the interactive all country Inequality table

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DEBT

  • World Economics produces GDP data in Purchasing Power Parity terms with added estimates for the size of the informal economy and adjustments for out-of-date GDP base year data.
  • Egypt's is officially reported as having a debt-to-GDP ratio is calculated to be 89.2% by the IMF.
  • Using the World Economics GDP database, Egypt's GDP is calculated to be 47% larger than official estimates. Its debt ratio is consequently calculated at 60.8%
Debt-to-GDP Ratio for Emerging Market Countries
Ranked by % of GDP
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Global
Rank
Debt-to-GDP
Ratio




Laos 28 66.4%
Iceland 29 65.5%
Jamaica 30 64.6%
Tunisia 31 62.7%
Germany 32 62.6%
Hungary 33 62.3%
Croatia 34 61.6%
Egypt 35 60.8%
Mongolia 36 60.7%
Slovenia 37 60.1%
China 38 58.7%
Argentina 39 58.1%
Finland 40 57.8%
El Salvador 41 56.5%
Israel 42 56.3%
Africa Average   41.3%
Emerging Markets Average   45.4%


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POPULATION

  • Egypt is the fourteenth most populous country in the world with approximately 104 million inhabitants.
  • Egypt last conducted a national census in 2017. Read more from the World Economics Population Data Quality Ratings and see how Egypt compares to other countries around the world and in the Africa region.
Egypt's Population Breakdown
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Population
Size
(Millions)
Median
Age
(Years)
Age
Dependency
(Young)
Age
Dependency
(Old)
Age
Dependency
(Total)





Nigeria 211.4 18.1 80.9% 5.1% 86.0%
Bangladesh 166.3 27.6 39.3% 7.7% 47.0%
Russia 145.9 39.6 27.8% 23.5% 51.2%
Mexico 130.3 29.2 38.8% 11.4% 50.3%
Japan 126.1 48.4 21.0% 48.0% 69.0%
Ethiopia 117.9 19.5 70.6% 6.3% 76.8%
Philippines 111.0 25.7 46.6% 8.6% 55.2%
Egypt 104.3 24.6 55.8% 8.8% 64.6%
Vietnam 98.2 32.5 33.6% 11.4% 45.1%
Congo, Dem. Rep 92.4 17.0 89.5% 5.9% 95.4%
Turkey 85.0 31.5 35.7% 13.4% 49.1%
Germany 83.9 45.7 21.7% 33.7% 55.4%
Thailand 70.0 40.1 23.5% 18.4% 41.9%
United Kingdom 68.2 40.5 27.8% 29.3% 57.1%
France 65.4 42.3 28.7% 33.7% 62.4%

Access the interactive all country Population table

  • Egypt has a young population profile of 55.8% and a low old population profile of 8.8%. The average age is low at 24.6 years old.

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ENVIRONMENT

  • Egypt's total emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Methane are considerable placing it as the 28th largest of polluters by volume but on per capita level, Egypt moves down the list to below the global median.
  • The World Economics Emissions Index (on a scale of 0-100, 0=bad, 100=good) gauges the relative emissions for a country. The Emissions Index is based on the equal weighting of total Carbon and Methane emissions.
Environmental Factors
Index: 0 = High Emissions, 100 = Low Emissions
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Emissions
Index
0-100
Carbon
Emissions
Total
Carbon
Emissions
Per Capita
Methane
Emissions
Total
Methane
Emissions
Per Capita
Air
Quality
PM2.5
Water
Access
per capita





Korea, Rep. 96.0 611.3 11.9 25.5 0.5 26.4 99.0%
Bangladesh 96.1 102.2 0.6 83.8 0.5 62.8 97.7%
United Kingdom 96.1 369.9 5.4 51.2 0.8 10.3 99.0%
France 96.1 323.6 5.0 58.3 0.9 11.5 99.0%
Turkey 96.1 405.1 4.8 47.4 0.6 37.2 97.0%
Colombia 96.4 102.2 2.0 77.1 1.5 18.5 97.5%
Ukraine 96.4 223.2 5.1 63.0 1.5 14.0 93.9%
Egypt 96.5 246.6 2.4 56.9 0.6 72.3 99.0%
Poland 96.5 322.6 8.5 47.5 1.3 21.0 99.0%
Philippines 96.6 144.3 1.3 67.7 0.6 21.3 94.1%
Italy 96.6 337.1 5.6 43.7 0.7 14.8 99.0%
Afghanistan 96.7 10.7 0.3 81.5 2.1 55.1 75.1%
Malaysia 96.8 250.1 7.6 48.0 1.5 16.3 97.1%
Kazakhstan 96.8 313.8 16.5 41.4 2.2 17.8 95.4%
United Arab Emirates 96.9 190.7 19.1 53.0 5.3 44.9 99.0%

See: Access the interactive all country Environmental data table

Key:
Emissions Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Bad, 100 = Good.

Notes:
Format: Carbon data in Million MtCO2e and Methane data in MtCO2e, Air Quality: PM2.5

Methodology: Total Carbon and Total Methane data for each country has been indexed on a scale of 0-100 by using the standard deviation from the mean for each country. The implied Indexes are averaged to calculate a total Emissions Index which focuses on each countries emissions.

  • Egypt was the 63rd hottest country in the World with an average annual temperature of 23.9 degrees centigrade (75.0 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • Temperatures in Egypt have risen on average by 1.7 degrees centigrade over the last century with the largest rises taking place since 1970.
Averge Annual Temerature by Year: Egypt

Source: CCKP. World Bank Group, Climate Change Knowledge Portal


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SOCIAL

  • The World Economics Social Index averages multiple key social indicators covering Health, Education and Employment.
  • Egypt has an average level rank for its social metrics, 98th out of 155 countries and 6th of 46 in the Africa region.
Social Factors: Africa
Index: 0 = Poor metrics, 100 = Excellent metrics
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Social
Factors
Index
Life
Expectancy
Years
Median
Age
Years
Mean Years
Schooling
Years
Population
in Work
Population %
Population
in Poverty
%





Mauritius 85.3 75.0 37.5 9.5 54.4% 0.0%
Algeria 82.1 76.9 28.5 8.0 36.3% 0.0%
Tunisia 80.4 76.7 32.8 7.2 38.7% 0.0%
Libya 79.9 72.9 28.8 7.6 40.5% 0.0%
Gabon 78.5 66.5 22.5 8.7 42.3% 0.0%
Egypt 77.7 72.0 24.6 7.4 41.4% 0.0%
Cabo Verde 76.8 73.0 27.6 6.3 53.0% 0.0%
Morocco 76.3 76.7 29.5 5.6 41.2% 0.0%
Botswana 76.3 69.6 24.0 9.6 57.9% 0.0%
South Africa 74.5 64.1 27.6 10.2 40.2% 0.0%
Ghana 70.0 64.1 21.5 7.3 64.9% 0.0%
Angola 69.5 61.2 16.7 5.2 72.2% 0.0%
Namibia 69.1 63.7 21.8 7.0 47.5% 0.0%

Access the interactive all country Social data table

Key:
Social Factors Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100
         0 = Poor social metrics, 100 = Excellent social metrics.

  • Each pupil in education receives 7.4 years of schooling (on average) - approximatly a year less than the global average.

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GOVERNANCE

  • Egypt ranks 132nd globally, 36th in the Africa region and last in the Emerging Markets for Governance.
Governance Factors Index: Africa
Index: 0 = Poor, 100 = Good
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Governance
Index
(0-100 Index)
Rule of Law
Index
(0-100 Index)
Press Freedom
(0-100 Index)
Political Rights
(0-100 Index)
Corruption
Perceptions
(0-100 Index)




Angola 32.9 24.9 61.7 28.6 16.4
Mali 32.8 25.8 58.8 26.2 20.5
Guinea Bissau 32.3 14.9 63.5 45.2 5.5
Mozambique 32.3 23.4 53.8 38.1 13.7
Gabon 31.3 32.2 60.4 11.9 20.5
Sudan 30.9 22.3 44.2 55.8 1.4
Eswatini 29.4 35.5 50.1 7.1 24.7
Egypt 29.0 39.8 32.6 19.0 24.7
Cameroon 27.1 20.3 53.0 21.4 13.7
Chad 24.3 16.4 60.6 11.9 8.2
Burundi 24.0 16.1 60.2 14.3 5.5
Central African Republic 23.7 6.4 61.5 11.9 15.1
Congo, Dem. Rep 19.2 4.4 51.4 16.7 4.1

Access the interactive all country Governance table

Key:
The World Economics Governance Index gives equal weight to all four criteria.

Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.

Governance: 0 = Poor governance, 100 = As good as it gets.
Corruption Perceptions: 0 = Bad, 100 = Good.
Rule of Law: 0 = low rule of law, 100 = High rule of law.
Press Freedom: 0 = Low press freedom, 100 = High press freedom.
Political Rights: 0 = Low political rights, 100 = High political rights.



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